In the mid 1970s Smith introduced the approach of Programming by Illustration with a system named Pygmalion, Smith elaborated on this in Enjoy What I Do: Programming by Demonstration (Chapter 1). This demonstrated the require to describe algorithms through concrete illustrations fairly than abstractly. ‘Example-based Programming: a pertinent visible method for finding out to program’ (Guibert et al, 2004) explain and expands on Smiths get the job done with an example demonstrating how quantities fail to reveal the concept driving them. The example is a numerical illustration of a triangle. This representation is ‘fregean’ due to the fact it does not demonstrate the idea of a triangle. Future to this is a diagram of the triangle that does display the notion. Future to this is a diagram of the triangle that does demonstrate the thought, this is referred to as ‘analogical’ representation mainly because it contains the context of the facts. Together with the context of the data permits a man or woman to find meanings or relationships in the information which would not generally be evident. (Hanna, 2005) and (Elliott, 2006)give an interface for immediate manipulation of shapes in this analogical way by making an interactive triangle manipulation illustration utilizing the Haskell purposeful programming language.

Semantic world-wide-web languages allow for for the context of the info to be represented in files and so make it probable to stand for information in an analogical way, as properly as allowing for two way interaction, main to an advancement in information discovery.

The development of visible consumer interfaces has been a main phase ahead. The use of pictorial metaphors these types of as folders to symbolize a assortment of documents has greatly aided human laptop or computer interaction. Pictorial metaphors give visible feed-back so the person is aware what the computer software process is executing. This approach can be used extra dynamically in simulations. Simulations characterize the serious globe issue and give continuous responses to the person on how the system is progressing. In this feeling, all program need to be regarded as a simulation. Pictorial metaphors are static, although a users’ psychological design is manufactured up of mental photographs related with each other by a established of policies. The consumer operates a mental product like a simulation. Static consumer interfaces rely on a user to string collectively visuals into a mental model which appropriately signifies what the technique is executing. A user could generate a psychological design in response to consumer interface metaphors which is inconsistent with the system design.

Simulation can enable to make certain that the designers’ design, process design and users’ product are all the same. This topic is explored in [Crapo et al. 2000 and 2002] and is the foundation of the visualisation strategies utilised to empower the user to make and realize designs that are subsequently translated into application representations. This is also discussed in chapter just one of Observe What I Do: Programming by Demonstration [Cypher, 1993], explains how the Pygmalion language tries to bridge the hole in between the programmer’s psychological product of a subject and what the personal computer can settle for. The creator of this technique David Smith went on to build office oriented icons as component of the Xerox’s “Star” computer system venture.

My study primarily based on these suggestions is readily available at

and my examples at kingdom/~phale/InteractiveSVGExamples.htm


Smith, D. C., 1977. A Laptop or computer Program to Model and Encourage Inventive Considered. Basel: Birkhauser.

Smith, D. C., 1993. Pygmalion: An Executable Digital Blackboard. In: A. Cypher, ed. Look at What I Do: Programming by Demonstration. MIT Push, Chapter 1 – ISBN:0262032139.

Guibert, N., Girard, P., Guittet, L., 2004. Case in point-dependent Programming: a pertinent visible approach for studying to program. Proceedings of the working meeting on Innovative visual interfaces. pp 358-361 – ISBN:1-58113-867-9.

Hanna, K., 2005. A doc-centered ecosystem for Haskell. 17th Worldwide Workshop on Implementation and Software of Useful Languages IFL 2005 Dublin, Eire – September 19-21 2005.

Elliott C., – Functional Programming by Interacting with Tangible Values – http://conal.internet/papers/Eros – Conal Elliott – April 8, 2006.

Crapo, A. W., Waisel, L. B., Wallace, W. A., Willemain, T. R., 2002. Visualization and Modelling for Smart Systems. In: C. T. Leondes, ed. Intelligent Systems: Technological innovation and Purposes, Volume I Implementation Techniques, 2002 pp 53-85.

Crapo, A. W., Waisel, L. B., Wallace, W. A., Willemain, T. R., 2000. Visualization and the approach of modeling: a cognitive-theoretic look at. Meeting on Awareness Discovery in Details – Proceedings of the sixth ACM SIGKDD global convention on Understanding discovery and data mining pp 218-226.

Cypher, A., 1993. Observe What I Do Programming by Demonstration. MIT Push, Chapter 1 – ISBN:0262032139.

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